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NEW ENGLISH CANAAN, or
The Second Book.
Containing a Description of the Beauty of the Country,
with Her Natural Endowments both in the Land and Sea,
with the Great Lake of Erocoise.
Of Stones and Minerals.
Now, for as much as I have in a brief abstract showed you the Creatures whose specifical natures do sympathize with the elements of fire and air, I will come to speak of the Creatures that participate of earth more than the other two, which is stones. 
And first of the Marble for building, whereof there is much in those parts, insomuch as there is one bay in the land that beareth the name of Marble Harbor because of the plenty of Marble there; and these are useful for building of sumptuous palaces. 
And because no good building can be made permanent or durable without Lime, I will let you understand that there is good Limestone near to the river of Monatoquit at Uttaquatock, to my knowledge. And we hope other places too (that I have not taken so much notice of) may have the like, or better; and those stones are very convenient for building. 
Chalkstones there are near Squanto's Chapel, showed me by a Salvage. 
There is abundance of excellent Slate in diverse places of the country; and the best that ever I beheld for covering of houses, and the inhabitants have made good use of these materials for building. 
There is a very useful Stone in the land, and as yet there is found out but one place where they may be had in the whole country. Old Woodman (that was choked at Plimoth after he had played the unhappy marksman when he was pursued by a careless fellow that was new-come into the land) they say labored to get a patent of it to himself. He was beloved of many, and had many sons, that had a mind to engross that commodity. And I cannot espy any mention made of it in the woodden prospect. 
Therefore I begin to suspect his  aim; that it was for himself, and therefore will I not discover it. It is the Stone so much commended by Ovid, because love delighteth to make his habitation in a building of those materials; where, he advises, those that seek for love do it Duris in Cotibus ilium.
This Stone the Salvages do call Cos and of these (on the north end of Richmond Island) are store, and those are very excellent good for edged tools. I envy not his  happiness. I have been there, viewed the place, liked the commodity; but will not plant so northerly for that nor any other commodity that is there to be had.
There are Loadstones also in the northern parts of the land; and those which were found are very good, and are a commodity worth the noting. 
Ironstones there are abundance; and several sorts of them known. 
Lead ore is there likewise, and hath been found by the breaking of the earth, which the frost hath made mellow. 
Black Lead I have likewise found very good, which the Salvages use paint their faces with. 
Red Lead is there likewise in great abundance. 
There is very excellent Boll Armoniack. 
There is most excellent Vermilion. All these things the Salvages make some little use of, and do find them on the circumference of the Earth. 
Brimstone mines there are likewise. 
Mines of Tin are likewise known to be in those parts which will in short time be made use of; and this cannot be accompted a mean commodity. 
Copper mines are there found likewise that will enrich the Inhabitants. But until their young Cattle be grown hardy laborers in the yoke, that the plough and the wheat may be seen more plentifully, it is a work must be forborne. 
They say there is a silver and a gold mine found by Captain Littleworth: if he get a patent of it to himself, he will surely change his name. 
Of the Fishes,
and What Commodity They Prove.
Among Fishes, first I will begin with the Cod, because it is the most commodious of all fish, as may appear by the use which is made of them in foreign parts. 
The Cod fishing is much used in America (whereof New England is a part), in so much as 300 sail of ships from diverse parts have used to be employed yearly in that trade, I have seen in one harbour next Richmond Island 15 sail of ships at one time, that have taken in them dried Cod for Spain and the Straits; and it has been found that the sailors have made 15, 18, 20, 22p. share for a common man.
The coast aboundeth with such multitudes of Cod that the inhabitants of New England do dung their grounds with Cod; and it is a commodity better than the golden mines of the Spanish Indies, for without dried Cod the Spaniard, Portingal and Italian would not be able to vittle of a ship for the sea. And I am sure at the Canaries it is the principal commodity, which place lyeth near New England very convenient for the vending of this commodity, one hundred of these being at the price of 300 of New found land Cod. Great store of train-oil is made of the livers of the Cod, and it is a commodity that without question will enrich the inhabitants of New England quickly; and is therefore a principal commodity. 
The Bass is an excellent Fish, both fresh and salt: one hundred whereof salted (at a market) have yielded 5p. They are so large, the head of one will give a good eater a dinner, and for daintiness of diet they excel the marybones of beef. There are such multitudes that I have seen stopped into the river close adjoining to my house, with a stand at one tide, so many as will load a ship of 100 tons. 
Other places have greater quantities, insomuch as wagers have been laid that one should not throw a stone in the water, but that he should hit a fish. 
I myself at the turning of the tide have seen such multitudes pass out of a pond, that it seemed to me that one might go over their backs drishod.
These follow the bait up the rivers, and sometimes are followed for bait and chased into the bays and shallow waters by the grand pise  ; and these may have also a prime place in the catalogue of commodities. The Mackerels are the bait for the Bass, and these have been chased into the shallow waters, where so many thousands have shot themselves ashore with the surf of the sea that whole hogsheads have been taken up on the sands; and for length they excel any of other parts. They have been measured 18 and 19 inches in length, and seven in breadth; and are taken with a drayle (as boats use to pass to and fro at sea on business) in very great quantities all along the Coast. 
The Fish is good salted for store against the winter as well as fresh, and to be accounted a good commodity.
This Sturgeon in England is regalis piscis. Every man in New England may catch what he will, there are multitudes of them. And they are much fatter than those that are brought into England from other parts, insomuch as by reason of their fatness they do not look white, but yellow, which made a cook presume they were not so good as them of Roushea. Silly fellow that could not understand that it is the nature of fish salted or pickled, the fatter the yellower being best to preserve. 
For the taste I have warrant of Ladies of worth, with choice palates for the commendations, who liked the taste so well that they esteemed it beyond the Sturgeon of other parts, and said they were deceived in the looks: therefore let the Sturgeon pass for a commodity.
Of Salmons there is great abundance; and these may be allowed for a commodity, and placed in the catalogue. 
Of Herrings there is great store, fat, and fair; and (to my mind) as good as any I have seen, and these may be preserved and made a good commodity at the Canaries. 
Of Eels there is abundance, both in the Salt-waters and in the fresh; and the freshwater Eel there (if I may take the judgment of a London fishmonger) is the best that he hath found in his lifetime. I have with jieele pots fed my household (being nine persons, besides dogs) with them, taking them every tide for 4 months space and preserving of them for winter store; and these may prove a good commodity. 
Of Smelts there is such abundance that the Salvages do take them up in the rivers with baskets, like sieves. 
There is a Fish by some called Shad, by some Alewives, that at the spring of the year pass up the rivers to spawn in the ponds; and are taken in such multitudes in every river that hath a pond at the end, that the Inhabitants dung their ground with them. You may see in one township a hundred acres together set with these fish, every acre taking 1000 of them; and an acre thus dressed will produce and yield so much corn as 3 acres without fish; and lest any Virginia man would infer hereupon that the ground of New England is barren, because they use no fish in setting their corn, I desire them to be remembered, the cause is plain in Virginia: they have it not to set. But this practice is only for the Indian Maize (which must be set by hands), not for English grain; and this is therefore a commodity there. 
There is a large-sized fish called Halibut, or Turbut: some are taken so big that two men have much ado to hale them into the boat, but there is such plenty, that the fishermen only eat the heads and fins, and throw away the bodies. Such in Paris would yield 5 or 6 crowns apiece; and this is no discommodity. 
There are excellent Plaice and easily taken. They (at flowing water) do almost come ashore, so that one may step but half a foot deep and prick them up on the sands; and this may pass with some allowance. 
Hake is a dainty white fish, and excellent vittle fresh; and may pass with other commodities, because there are multitudes. 
There are great store of Pilchers: at Michelmas, in many places, I have seen the Cormorants in length 3 miles feeding upon the Sent. 
Lobsters are there infinite in store in all the parts of the land, and very excellent. The most use that I made of them in 5 years after I came there was but to bait my hook for to catch Bass, I had been so cloyed with them the first day I went ashore. 
This being known, they shall pass for a commodity to the inhabitants; for the Salvages will meet 500 or 1000 at a place where Lobsters come in with the tide, to eat and save dried for store, abiding in that place feasting and sporting a month or 6 weeks together.
There are great store of Oysters in the entrance of all Rivers: they are not round as those of England, but excellent fat, and all good. I have seen an Oyster bank a mile at length. 
Mussles there are infinite store. I have often gone to Wessaguscus where were excellent Mussles to eat (for variety), the fish is so fat and large. 
Clams is a shellfish which I have seen sold in Westminster for 1 p. the score. These our swine feed upon; and of them there is no want, every shore is full. It makes the swine prove exceedingly, they will not fail at low water to be with them. The Salvages are much taken with the delight of this fish; and are not cloyed (notwithstanding the plenty). For our swine we find it a good commodity. 
Razorfishes there are. 
Freeles there are, Cockles, and Scallops, and diverse other sorts of Shellfish, very good food. 
Now that I have showed you what commodities are there to be had in the sea for a market, I will show what is in the land also, for the comfort of the inhabitants, wherein it doth abound. And because my task is an abstract, I will discover to them the commodity thereof.
There are in the rivers and ponds very excellent Trouts, Carps, Breams, Pikes, Roches, Perches, Tenches, Eels and other fishes, such as England doth afford, and as good for variety; yea many of them much better; and the Natives of the inland parts do buy hooks of us to catch them with, and I have known the time that a Trout's hook hath yielded a beaver skin, which hath been a good commodity to those that have bartered them away. 
These things I offer to your consideration (courteous Reader) and require you to show me the like in any part of the known world, if you can.
Of the Goodness
of the Country and the Waters.
Now since it is a country so infinitely blest with food, and fire to roast or boil our Flesh and Fish, why should any man fear for cold there, in a country warmer in the winter than some parts of France, and nearer the sun; unless he be one of those that Solomon bids go to the Ant and the Bee. 
There is no boggy ground known in all the country, from whence the sun may exhale unwholesome vapors. But there are diverse aromatical herbs and plants, as Sassafras, Musk Roses, Violets, Balm, Laurel, Honeysuckles and the like, that with their vapors perfume the air; and it has been a thing much observed that ships have come from Virginia where there have been scarce five men able to hale a rope, until they have come within 40 degrees of latitude, and smelt the sweet air of the shore, where they have suddenly recovered. 
And for the water, therein it excelleth Canaan by much; for the land is so apt for fountains, a man cannot dig amiss. Therefore if the Abrahams and Lots of our times come thither, there needs be no contention for wells. 
Besides there are waters of most excellent virtues, worthy admiration. 
At Ma-re Mount, there was a water (by me discovered) that is most excellent for the cure of Melancolly probatum. 
At Weenasemute is a water, the virtue whereof is to cure barrenness. The place taketh his name of that fountain which signifieth quick spring, or quickning spring probatum. 
Near Squanto's Chapel (a place so by us called) is a fountain that causeth a dead sleep for 48 hours to those that drink 24 ounces at a draught, and so proportionably. The Salvages that are Powahs at set times use it, and reveal strange things to the vulgar people by means of it. So that in the delicacy of waters, and the conveniency of them, Canaan came not near this Country. 
As for the Milk and Honey which that Canaan flowed with, it is supplied by the plenty of birds, beasts and fish, whereof Canaan could not boast herself.
Yet nevertheless (since the Milk came by the industry of the first Inhabitants), let the cattle be cherished that are at this time in New England, and forborne but a little, I will ask no long time; no more but until the Brethren have converted one Salvage and made him a good Christian, and I may be bold to say, butter and cheese will be cheaper there than ever it was in Canaan. It is cheaper there than in old England at this present, for there are store of cows, considering the people: which (as my intelligence gives) is 12,000 persons. And in God's name let the people have their desire, who write to their friends to come out of Sodom to the land of Canaan, a land that flows with Milk and Honey. 
And I appeal to any man of judgment whether it be not a land that for her excellent endowments of nature may pass for a plain parallel to Canaan of Israel, being in a more temperate climate, this being in 40 degrees and that in 30. 
A Perspective to View the Country by.
As for the Soil, I may be bold to commend the fertility thereof, and prefer it before the soil of England (our Native Country), arid I need not to produce more than one argument for proof thereof, because it is so infallible.
Hemp is a thing by husbandmen in general agreed upon to prosper best in the most fertile soil; and experience hath taught this rule, that Hempseed prospers so well in New England, that it shooteth up to be ten foot high and ten foot and a half, which is twice so high as the ground in old England produceth it, which argues New England the more fertile of the two. 
As for the Air, I will produce but one proof for the maintenance of the excellency thereof; which is so general, as I assure myself it will suffice.
No man living there was ever known to be troubled with a cold, a cough, or a murre, but many men coming sick out of Virginia to New Canaan have instantly recovered with the help of the purity of that air; no man ever surfeited himself either by eating or drinking. 
As for the plenty of that land, it is well-known that no part of Asia, Africa or Europe affordeth deer that do bring forth any more than one single fawn; and in New Canaan the deer are accustomed to bring forth 2 and 3 fawns at a time. Besides there are such infinite flocks of fowl, and multitudes of fish both in the fresh waters and also on the coast, that the like hath not elsewhere been discovered by any traveler.
The Winds there are not so violent as in England; which is proved by the trees that grow in the face of the wind by the seacoast, for there they do not lean from the wind as they do in England, as we have heard before.
The Rain is there more moderate than in England, which thing I have noted in all the time of my residence to be so.
The Coast is lowland, and not highland; and he is of a weak capacity that conceiveth otherwise of it, because it cannot be denied but that boats may come aground in all places along the coast, and especially within the compass of the Massachusetts patent, where the prospect is fixed. 
The Harbors are not to be bettered for safety, and goodness of ground for anchorage. And (which is worthy observation) shipping will not there be furred. Neither are they subject to worms, as in Virginia and other places.
Let the Situation also of the country be considered, together with the rest which is discovered in the front of this abstract, and then I hope no man will hold this land unworthy to he entitled by the name of the second Canaan.
And since the
Separatists are desirous to have the denomination thereof, I am become an humble Suitor on their
behalf for your consents (courteous
Readers) to it, before I do show you what Revels they have kept in New Canaan.
Of the Great Lake of Erocoise in New England,
and the Commodities Thereof.
Westwards from the Massachusetts Bay (which lyeth in 42 degrees and 30 minutes of northern latitude) is situated a very spacious lake called of the Natives the Lake of Erocoise, which is far more excellent than the Lake of Genezereth in the Country of Palestine, both in respect of the greatness and properties thereof, and likewise of the manifold commodities it yieldeth. 
The circumference of which lake is reputed to be 240 miles at the least, and it is distant from the Massachusetts Bay 300 miles or thereabouts; wherein are very many fair islands, where innumerable flocks of several sorts of fowl do breed, swans, geese, ducks, widgens, teals, and other waterfowl. 
There are also more abundance of beavers, deer, and turkeys bred about the parts of that lake than in any place in all the country of New England; and also such multitudes of fish (which is a great part of the food that the beavers live upon) that it is a thing to be admired at. So that about this lake is the principalst place for a plantation in all New Canaan, both for pleasure and profit. 
Here may very many brave Towns and Cities he erected which may have intercourse one with another by water, very commodiously: and it is of many men of good judgment accounted the prime seat for the Metropolis of New Canaan. From this lake northwards is derived the famous River of Canada, so named of Monsier de Cane, a French Lord that first planted a colony of French in America, there called Nova Francia. From whence Captaine Kerke of late, by taking that plantation, brought home in one ship (as a seaman of his company reported in my hearing) 25,000 beaver-skins. 
And from this lake southwards trends that goodly river called of the Natives Patomack, which dischargeth herself in the parts of Virginia, from whence it is navigable by shipping of great burden up to the falls (which lieth in 41 degrees and a half of north latitude); and from the lake down to the falls by a fair current. This river is navigable for vessels of good burden; and thus much hath often been related by the Natives, and is of late found to be certain. 
They have also made description of great herds of well-grown beasts that live about the parts of this lake, such as the Christian world (until this discovery) hath not been made acquainted with. These beasts are of the bigness of a cow, their flesh being very good food, their hides good leather, their fleeces very useful, being a kind of wool as fine almost as the wool of the Beaver, and the Salvages do make garments thereof.
It is ten years since first the relation of these things came to the ears of the English; at which time we were but slender proficients in the language of the Natives, and they which now have attained to more perfection of English could not then make us rightly apprehend their meaning. 
We supposed, when they spake of Beasts thereabouts as high as men, they had made report of men all over hairy like Beavers, insomuch as we questioned them, whether they ate of the Beavers. To which they replied, Matta (No), saying they were almost Beaver's Brothers. This relation at that time we concluded to be fruitless, which since, time hath made more apparent.
About the parts of the lake may be made a very great commodity by the trade of furs, to enrich those that shall plant there: a more complete discovery of those parts is (to my knowledge) undertaken by Henry Ioseline, Esquire, son of Sir Thomas Ioseline of Kent, Knight, by the approbation and appointment of that heroic and very good Commonwealth's man, Captain John Mason, Esquire, a true foster-father and lover of virtue; who at his own charge hath fitted Master Ioseline and employed him to that purpose, who no doubt will perform as much as is expected, if the Dutch (by getting into those parts before him) do not frustrate his so hopeful and laudable designs. 
It is well-known they aim at that place, and have a possibility to attain unto the end of their desires therein, by means of the River of Mohegan, which of the English is named Hudson's River, where the Dutch have settled two well-fortified plantations already. If that river be derived from the lake as our countryman in his Prospect affirms it to be, and if they get and fortify this place also, they will glean away the best of the Beaver both from the French and English, who have hitherto lived wholly by it, and very many old planters have gained good estates out of small beginnings by means thereof. 
And it is well-known to some of our nation that have lived in the Dutch plantation, that the Dutch have gained by Beaver 20,000 pound a year.
The Salvages make report of 3 great rivers that issue out of this lake, two of which are to us known, the one to be Patomack, the other Canada. And why may not the third be found there likewise which they describe to trend westward, which is conceived to discharge herself into the South Sea? The Salvages affirm that they have seen ships in this lake with 4 masts, which have taken from thence for their lading earth, that is conjectured to be some mineral stuff. 
There is probability enough for this, and it may well be thought that so great a conflux of waters as are there gathered together must be vented by some great rivers; and that if the third river (which they have made mention of) prove to be true as the other two have done, there is no doubt but that the passage to the East India may be obtained without any such dangerous and fruitless inquest by the Norwest, as hitherto hath been endeavored.
And there is no Traveler of any reasonable capacity but will grant that about this lake must be innumerable springs, and by that means many fruitful and pleasant pastures all about it. It hath been observed that the inland parts (witness Neepnet) are more pleasant and fertile than the borders of the seacoast. And the country about Erocoise is (not without good cause) compared to the Delta, the most fertile part in all Aegypt, that aboundeth with rivers and rivulets derived from Nilus' fruitful channel, like veins from the liver. So in each respect is this famous lake of Erocoise. 
therefore it would be adjudged an irreparable oversight to protract time, and
suffer the Dutch (who are but intruders upon his Majesty’s most hopeful country
of New England) to possess themselves of that so pleasant and commodious
country of Erocoise before us; being (as appeareth) the principal part of all
New Canaan for plantation, and not elsewhere to be paralleled in all the known
NEW CANAAN’S GENIUS.
Thou that art by Fate’s decree
Or Providence, ordained to see
Nature’s wonder, her rich store
Ne’er discovered before,
The admired Lake of Erocoise
And fertile borders, now rejoice.
See what multitudes of fish
She presents to fit thy dish:
If rich furs thou dost adore,
And of Beaver Fleeces, store,
See the Lake where they abound,
And what pleasures else are found.
There chaste Leda, free from fire
Does enjoy her heart’s desire:
‘Mongst the flowery banks at ease
Live the sporting Naiades,
Big-limbed Druids, whose brows
Beautified are with green boughs. 
See the Nymphs, how they do make
Fine Meanders from the Lake,
Twining in and out as they
Through the pleasant groves make way,
Weaving by the shady trees
Curious Anastomases. 
Where the harmless Turtles breed,
And such useful beasts do feed
As no Traveler can tell
Elsewhere how to parallel.
Colchis’ Golden Fleece reject:
This deserveth best respect.
In sweet Paeans let thy voice
Sing the praise of Erocoise,
Paeans to advance her name,
New Canaan’s everlasting fame. 
Dialogue with others
about these subjects.
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